ACS Applied Computer Science

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“Ghostwriting” procedure


(based on guidelines of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education, Republic of Poland)

Reliability is one of the foundations in the education. Readers should be assured that the author’s results of work are transparent, fair and honest. Authors should present works in such a way whether they are the direct authors, or used in support of a natural or legal person. Therefore, the provide information about entities that contribute to the formation of publication (their substantive or financial contribution, etc.) is necessary. It is a sign of good morals and corporate social responsibility. Opposite behaviors are the phenomenon of “ghostwriting” and “guest authorship”.

“Ghostwriting” and “guest authorship”

"Ghostwriting" is the concealment participation of a person having a significant contribution to the formation of publication. If the author's contribution in the formation of the publication is negligible or even not taken place, and it is still included as an author or co-author - then we have to deal with the phenomenon of "guest authorship".
In order to prevent the "ghostwriting" and "guest authorship" cases authors of the publication should reveal the contribution of individual authors in the creation of the publication. They should provide information about the authorship of ideas, assumptions, methods, etc. used for the development of publication. The main responsibility for the article bears author.


Moreover the authors should present information about sources of funding of publications, contribution of research institutions, associations and other entities ("financial disclosure").


"Ghostwiring" and "guest authorship" are forms of scientific misconduct and therefore each detected case will be exposed. The editors will notify the institutions employing authors and scientific societies. All cases of scientific misconduct (especially violations and breaches of ethics applicable in science) will be documented.